The quantities of waste generated globally each year has grown over the last decades, due to population and economic growth, and the consequent changes in production and consumption patterns. Beyond being a significant source of carbon emissions, there is also the risk of significant environmental and health impacts.
There are a number of mature, environmentally-effective technologies available to mitigate emissions and provide public health and sustainable development co-benefits. Collectively, these technologies can directly reduce GHG emissions (through landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, engineered wastewater management) or avoid significant GHG generation (through controlled composting of organic waste, state-of-the-art incineration and expanded sanitation coverage). In addition, waste minimization, recycling and re-use represent an important and increasing potential for indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency and fossil fuel avoidance.
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